off topic but interesting.... how the internet came to be....
From the links on ARPANET:
"In March, 1970, the ARPANET reached the East Coast of the United States, when a BBN
company IMP was connected to the network. Thereafter, the ARPANET grew: 9 IMPs by June 1970 and 13 IMPs by December 1970, then 18 by September 1971 (when the network included 23 university and government hosts); 29 IMPs by August 1972, and 40 by September, 1973. By June 1974, there were 46 IMPs, and in July 1975, the network numbered 57 IMPs. By 1981, the number was 213 host computers, with another host connecting approximately every twenty days.
In 1968, two satellite links, traversing the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, to Hawaii
, one, the Norwegian Seismic Array
(NORSAR), were connected to the ARPANET. Moreover, from Norway, a terrestrial circuit added a London IMP to the network in 1973.
Given that its primary function was funding research and development, the ARPA, in 1975, transferred ARPANET control to the Defense Communications Agency
, a component of the US Defense Department. In 1983, the US military sub-networks of the ARPANET became the discrete Military Network (MILNET
) for unclassified defense department communications; separating the civil and military networks reduced the 113-node ARPANET by 68 nodes.
Support for inter-IMP circuits of up to 230.4 kbit/s was added in 1970, although considerations of cost and IMP processing power meant this capability was not actively used.
1971 saw the start of the use of the non-ruggedized (and therefore significantly lighter) Honeywell 316
as an IMP. It could also be configured as a Terminal IMP (TIP), which added support for up to 63 ASCII
serial terminals through a multi-line controller in place of one of the hosts. The 316 featured a greater degree of integration than the 516, which made it less expensive and easier to maintain. The 316 was configured with 40 kB of core memory for a TIP. The size of core memory was later increased, to 32 kB for the IMPs, and 56 kB for TIPs, in 1973.
In 1975, BBN introduced IMP software running on the Pluribus multi-processor
. These appeared in a small number of sites. In 1981, BBN introduced IMP software running on its own C/30
The original IMPs and TIPs were phased out as the ARPANET was shut down after the introduction of the NSFNet
, but some IMPs remained in service as late as 1989.
Senator Albert Gore
began to craft the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991
(commonly referred to as "The Gore Bill") after hearing the 1988 report toward a National Research Network submitted to Congress by a group chaired by UCLA professor of computer science, Leonard Kleinrock
, one of the central creators of the ARPANET (the ARPANET, first deployed by Kleinrock and others in 1969, is the predecessor of the Internet). The bill was passed on December 9, 1991 and led to the National Information Infrastructure
(NII) which Gore
referred to as the "information superhighway